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Thread: Covid 19: adjuvant approaches etc,

  1. #31
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    This is a very important paper, and what I have been indicating since March:

    ACS Infect Dis. 2020 May 28 :

    Endogenous Deficiency of Glutathione as the Most Likely Cause of Serious Manifestations and Death in COVID-19 Patients

    Abstract

    Higher rates of serious illness and death from coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) infection among older people and those who have comorbidities suggest that age- and disease-related biological processes make such individuals more sensitive to environmental stress factors including infectious agents like coronavirus SARS-CoV-2. Specifically, impaired redox homeostasis and associated oxidative stress appear to be important biological processes that may account for increased individual susceptibility to diverse environmental insults. The aim of this Viewpoint is to justify

    (1) the crucial roles of glutathione in determining individual responsiveness to COVID-19 infection and disease pathogenesis and

    (2) the feasibility of using glutathione as a means for the treatment and prevention of COVID-19 illness. The hypothesis that glutathione deficiency is the most plausible explanation for serious manifestation and death in COVID-19 patients was proposed on the basis of an exhaustive literature analysis and observations. The hypothesis unravels the mysteries of epidemiological data on the risk factors determining serious manifestations of COVID-19 infection and the high risk of death and opens real opportunities for effective treatment and prevention of the disease.

    Full paper:

    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7263077/
    - Will

    General Performance/Fitness Advice for all

    www.BrinkZone.com


    “Those who do not view armed self defense as a basic human right, ignore the mass graves of those who died on their knees at the hands of tyrants.”

  2. #32
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    A lukewarm rec but a rec:

    Joint Guidance on Vitamin D in the Era of COVID-19 from the ASBMR, AACE, Endocrine Society, ECTS, NOF, and IOF

    In response to the current COVID-19 global pandemic, and the attendant impact on outdoor physical activity and leisure time, the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research (ASBMR), American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists (AACE), Endocrine Society, European Calcified Tissue Society (ECTS), National Osteoporosis Foundation (NOF), and International Osteoporosis Foundation (IOF) remind individuals of the importance of obtaining the daily recommended dosage of vitamin D. The scientific evidence clearly supports the benefits that vitamin D, in combination with calcium intake, plays in building strong skeletons and preventing bone loss.

    One of the best sources of vitamin D is through 15-30 minutes of direct sunlight exposure on your skin daily (taking care to avoid sunburn). As a result of the current global pandemic and particularly stay-at-home orders, individuals may be spending less time outdoors, resulting in fewer opportunities to obtain this important nutrient.

    For those unable to spend at least 15-30 minutes with direct sun exposure each day, the easiest way to acquire vitamin D is through food supplemented with vitamin D and/or vitamin D nutritional supplements. Although some foods in the U.S. and elsewhere are fortified with vitamin D, the levels are often fairly low.

    ASBMR, AACE, Endocrine Society, ECTS, NOF, and IOF recommend that most adults 19 years and older obtain between 400 1000 International Units (IUs) of vitamin D daily from food and/or with supplements (ideal intake depends on age and sex).

    Although recent epidemiologic (observational) studies have suggested associations between low 25(OH)-vitamin D concentrations and higher rates of COVID-19 infection, these are likely related to ethnicity, age, and general health rather than a causal relationship. To date, no clinical trials studying a potential effect of vitamin D supplementation on preventing COVID-19 disease have been completed.

    The current data do not provide any evidence that vitamin D supplementation will help prevent or treat COVID-19 infection; however, our guidance does not preclude further study of the potential effects of vitamin D on COVID-19. Research to date suggests that vitamin D may play a role in enhancing the immune response, and given prior work demonstrating a role for the activated form of vitamin D [1,25(OH)2D] in immune responses, further research into vitamin D supplementation in COVID-19 disease is warranted.

    Vitamin D is very safe when taken at reasonable dosages and is important for musculoskeletal health. Levels are likely to decline as individuals reduce outside activity (and so sun exposure) during the pandemic. Most older and younger adults can safely take 400-1000 IU daily to keep vitamin D levels within the optimal range as recommended by Institute of Medicine guidelines (1).

    1. Institute of Medicine. 2011. Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium and Vitamin D. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. https://doi.org/10.17226/13050.
    - Will

    General Performance/Fitness Advice for all

    www.BrinkZone.com


    “Those who do not view armed self defense as a basic human right, ignore the mass graves of those who died on their knees at the hands of tyrants.”

  3. #33
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    Did Sweden's approach work for Sweden contrary to the claims? This article makes a good case for the answer being yes. I posit we will not know the full answers for a while, but worth a read on the topic:

    https://fee.org/articles/why-sweden-...w-york-failed/
    - Will

    General Performance/Fitness Advice for all

    www.BrinkZone.com


    “Those who do not view armed self defense as a basic human right, ignore the mass graves of those who died on their knees at the hands of tyrants.”

  4. #34
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    An interesting paper on possible mechanisms by which Melatonin may help with COVID-19-induced Cytokine Storm:

    Med Drug Discov. 2020 Jun; 6: 100044.

    Melatonin Inhibits COVID-19-induced Cytokine Storm by Reversing Aerobic Glycolysis in Immune Cells: A Mechanistic Analysis

    The pathogenesis of a COVID-19 respiratory infection, in a major way, is related to what is referred to as the cytokine storm [cytokine storm syndrome (CSS, hypercytokinemia, etc.], i.e., it is a hyper-inflammatory response. During this response, an explosive production of proinflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α IL-1β, and others occurs, greatly exaggerating the generation of molecule-damaging reactive oxygen species (free radicals) [1]. In severe cases, the cytokine storm is responsible for the most obvious signs of a COVID-19 infection including fever, lung injury which causes cough and shortness of breath (and the long-term complication, lung fibrosis) and in death.

    A causative factor related to the hyper-inflammatory state of immune cells is their ability to dramatically change their metabolism. Similar to cancer cells in many solid tumors, immune cells such as macrophages/monocytes under inflammatory conditions abandon mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation for ATP production in favor of cytosolic aerobic glycolysis (also known as the Warburg effect) [2]. This switch is driven by the transcription factor HIF-1α (hypoxia inducible factor-1α) and the serine/threonine kinase, mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) and other proteins The change to aerobic glycolysis allows immune cells to become highly phagocytic, accelerate ATP production, intensify their oxidative burst and to provide the abundant metabolic precursors required for enhanced cellular proliferation and increased synthesis and release of cytokines (Fig. 1 ).

    Cont:

    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7211589/
    - Will

    General Performance/Fitness Advice for all

    www.BrinkZone.com


    “Those who do not view armed self defense as a basic human right, ignore the mass graves of those who died on their knees at the hands of tyrants.”

  5. #35
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    NAC continues to look like a valuable option with Covid:

    N-acetycysteine: a potential therapeutic agent in COVID-19 infection


    Second paper is via IV route as recommend in OP linked article:

    Therapeutic blockade of inflammation in severe COVID-19 infection with intravenous n-acetylcysteine
    Last edited by WillBrink; 07-27-20 at 10:25.
    - Will

    General Performance/Fitness Advice for all

    www.BrinkZone.com


    “Those who do not view armed self defense as a basic human right, ignore the mass graves of those who died on their knees at the hands of tyrants.”

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